There’s no denying that citing sources is one of the most elaborate steps in the process of preparing an academic paper. Now, some of you may consider using a citation machine for APA or MLA or Chicago styles. But it’s still important to have a basic idea about the most common citation styles that exist.
In fact, when you have some clarity on the different citation styles, you will find it easier to use the citation machine for Chicago or Vancouver or any other style.
1. Vancouver referencing
Vancouver referencingis a numeric referencing style in which each source is provided with a number that corresponds to the order in which the source appears in the text. If the same source is mentioned again in the text, the same number is used. The reference list consists of a single numbered list of citations with full details.
Here’s a Vancouver referencing example is given below.
2. APA referencing and citation
APA style was initially applied in psychology and social sciences. Today, many other disciplines also follow this style. APA citation style follows the author-date system of the parenthetical citation, similar to the Harvard style.
Most of the conventions involve brief author-date citations in brackets in the body of the text and full citations in the reference list. It’s common to incorporate a reference list only instead of APA style bibliography.how to write a bibliography
3. Harvard referencing and citation
This style is also known as the ‘author-date’ style. In this particular style the in the body of the text, in-text citation can be in brackets or footnotes. The method requires you to use the author’s last name and the date of publication, with the page number (if it’s a reference to a particular page). The complete details are only listed in the bibliography or the reference list.
4. Chicago referencing and citation
Chicago style referencing provides two options for citations. You can list out brief citations in the body of the text, or list them in footnotes like the Oxford referencing style. If you’re suggested to use Chicago style referencing and citation, it’s essential to check which format your department wants you to employ.
5. OSCOLA referencing and citation
OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities) is specifically used in legal studies, as it consists of rules for dealing with the kind of sources that law students may frequently use.
The in-text citations are placed in footnotes, with a formal set of abbreviations for key sources, like AC for Appeal Cases. The use of punctuation is limited in this style, and there are particular rules for dealing with subsequent mentions.
With all this information, you will find it easier to cite the sources on your academic paper the next time.
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